The Resolution 2093
adopted by the UN Security Council on March 6, 2013 endorses the long overdue partnership
mission between the Federal Government of Somalia and the International
Community for the peacebuilding and statebuilding of Somalia. The mission is
ambitious, complex and treacherous but the right one.
The significance of the
Resolution is historic for several reasons. First, it ends the more than two
decades the international community has been avoiding the responsibility of
addressing the statelessness of Somalia in difference to other African
failed states. Second, it reaffirms the commitment of the US
government towards the peacebuilding and statebuilding for Somalia. Third, it mergesthe conflicting strategies pursued by
the individual or group members of the international community for their self
interests. Fourth, it moves Somalia from the regional level management and
supervision to UN level partnership.
The Resolution addresses
five issues, namely the African Union forces in Somalia (AMISOM) , the human
rights and protection of civilians, the
lifting of arms embargo imposed on Somalia from 1992, the role of the United
Nations in Somalia, and the violations of
the ban on the charcoal export.
The Resolution renews the
deployment of the AMISOM forces until March 6, 2014 with the full support of
the international community. AMISOM forcesare ordered to carry out their tasks in full support of the sovereignty,
territorial integrity, political independenceand unity of Somalia. They are also subject to accountability,
transparency and criminal prosecution for any human rights violations.
The Resolution dissolves the United Nations
Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS) and establishes a United Nations Mission headquartered
in Mogadishu with the responsibilities of supporting among others the Somali ownership
of the peacebuilding and statebuilding agenda and the efforts of the Federal Government
to manage and coordinate the international assistance, particularly on security
sector reform. The US Permanent Representative to the UN, Ambassador Susan E.
Rice stated that the Resolution answers President Hassan Sheikh Mohamed’s call for “one door to knock on.”
The Resolution demands the protection of civilians, with particular
emphasis on women, children and journalists. It also requires the Federal Government to implement all signed action plans to end the
use of child soldiers, increase women’s participation in decision making
bodies, enforce the prohibitation of forced displacement of civilians in any
part of the country, and to afford justice to all victims.
The Resolution makes clear
that the lifting of the arms embargo on
the Federal Government of Somalia is in recognition of its responsibility to protect
its citizens. In support, the international community is urged to provide increased
and coordinated timely support to the Federal Government so that it can implement
the internationally approved Somali National Security Sector Reform Plan (SNSSRP).
According to some reports, six Somali military brigades of roughly 11,000
forces have been trained under the European training program conducted in
Uganda or under programs offered by Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, Sudan, Italy and
other countries. These forces need command and control centers, buildings, training,
uniforms, modern arms, regular salaries and other compensations like the members
of the Federal Parliament for carrying out their national duties and facilitating
the departure of foreign forces from Somalia before March 6, 2014.
The arms embargo remains on
all non state actors and forces not under the Federal Government’s jurisdiction
and control. The UN Security Council is
satisfied with the Federal Government’s commitment to peace, stability and
reconciliation across Somalia including at the regional level.
The Resolution expresses the UN Security Council’s concern about the continuous
violations of the Somali and United
Nations ban on charcoal exports. Thus, the Resolution orders the full
cooperation with the Task Force appointed by President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud.
The Council awaits the recommendations of the Federal Government of Somalia
based on the findings of the Task Force for resolving the charcoal issue.
There are many serious challengesand obstacles which could interfere with the realization of the
peacebuilding and statebuilding mission endorsed by the international
community. Some of the principal
challenges are coming from the international community itself.
The commentary of Cedric
de Coning titled, “Understanding Peacebuilding as Essentially Local,” documents the
dilemma facing the Federal Government in dealing with the powerful international
partners and explains how “each
international partner acting
independently and rationally according to its own self interest
contributes to undermining the resilience of the local government the partner
want to support.” It has been reported that most of the energy and time of
the Federal Government is spent to service the needs of the international
community rather that the needs of the Somali people.
Another obstacle is the lack of significant international
financial support tailored to the urgent priorities assigned to the Federal Government
daily, monthly and yearly. The unprecedented support of the international
community has yet to transform into financial contributions for implementing
the interdependent components of the statebuilding mission.
The political and military
involvement of Kenya and Ethiopia in Somalia under IGAD panel has so far created complications and
discord. A relation of cooperation conducted and maintained at National levels is critical for Somalia’s long term stability.
The limited financial and
human resources capacity of the Federal Government to produce a quick and comprehensive
strategic political, economic, institutional and security plans that responds
to the dynamics, templates and preferencesof each member of the international community constitutes great obstacle.
This limitation has been exacerbated by the small number of Cabinet Ministers
with huge responsibilities but with quasi no qualified staff and job
descriptions. There is also a persistent rumorthat the Federal Government is under the tight control of few
individuals of religious affinity with obscure agenda. Not dispelling this kind
of rumor, it could compound with other recycled accusations peddled by the elements
who chose the President and the Prime Minister as target of their political
Another challenge is the
tension between the tribalist/satellite
enclave federalists and nationalist
federalists. While there is No
Federal Member State as of today in accordance with the Provisional
Constitution, there are continuous accusations for constitutional violations labeled
against the Federal Government in not consulting with a Federal Member State. The fact remains that the source of legitimacy
of the Federal Government belongs to the
legalized common consensus 4.5 clan formula of political powersharing until
such a time the alternative one man one vote electoral system envisaged in the
provisional constitution is implemented.
The disagreement between
Puntland and Federal Government has nothing to do with decentralized or centralized
federalism or with Puntland being member or part of the Federal Government.
It is just a political brinkmanship. The communities in Puntland as other
communities are associated with the Federal Government through their members
of the Federal Parliament but the Puntland State Entity as Ahlu Sunna Wal Jama and GalMudug State Entities is not part or member of the Federal Government.
The secession claim of the
Northern Regions of Somalia (Somaliland) is another source of challenge that
needs to be addressed. Statebuilding of Somalia should not be held hostage to the
disastrous past political power abuses which deserve investigation and
determination of culpability, punishment and compensation.
The UN Resolution 2093 offers great opportunity to the people of
Somalia. The Federal Government must tackle the reconciliation among Somalis with
an honest, serious and substantive political dialogue , policies and actions with
the aim of achieving the shared goal of one nation one people.
In his unique
constitutional responsibility, the
President of the Federal Government in collaboration with other leaders must
strive to secure the unity, social harmony, political integration, national
defense and respect of the rule of law throughout the country. The value of citizenship, which grows with
patriotism, freedom, equality, justice, sense of altruism and respect of the Islamic
values, must be instilled in the conscience of all Somalis for better future.
Mohamud M Uluso