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Human Capital Development Strategy for Somalia

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Tuesday December 01, 2020 - 06:25:32 in Latest News by Super Admin
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    Human Capital Development Strategy for Somalia

    The last 20 years have been characterized by slow but steady recovery and a modest reconstitution of state institutions, including the adoption of a contested and unsettled federal governance structure. There is much to be optimistic about Somalia�

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The last 20 years have been characterized by slow but steady recovery and a modest reconstitution of state institutions, including the adoption of a contested and unsettled federal governance structure. There is much to be optimistic about Somalia's recovery despite the protracted instability. This human capital development strategy is anchored on Somalia's fragile realities and its success hinges upon the ushering in of a conducive enabling environment. The human capital development strategy aims to provide a framework to transform the knowledge and skills of the Somali workforce and help to develop an empowered and healthy Somali population with the necessary skills and attitudes for productive sector driven and sustainable economic development. Download the full report here
Foreword
A consortium comprising the Heritage Institute for Policy Studies (HIPS) and City University of Mogadishu,
with the support of more than 20 distinguished academics, researchers and consultants undertook a
multi-sector human capital development baseline study for Somalia – with a special focus on the health,
labor, education, fisheries, livestock and agriculture sectors.
The primary purpose of this initiative was to produce the first-ever comprehensive human capital
development strategy (HCDS) for Somalia. We specifically looked at how a skilled and healthy population
could emerge as a catalyst in harnessing the country’s abundant natural resources for more sustainable
development. We also examined how best to stimulate, advance and synchronize the efforts of human capital
development stakeholders, particularly the federal government, the federal member states, educators at all
levels and the private sector.
Over 1000 human capital development stakeholders from both the public and private sectors contributed
to this pioneering research work, making it the most authoritative human capital development study and
strategy ever produced for Somalia. In fact, after reviewing the preliminary findings of the baseline study, the
Federal Ministry of Planning designated human capital development as a national priority.
It would not have been possible to complete this initiative without the considerable support of the federal
government and all of the federal member states. The federal Minister of Planning, Gamal Hassan, and the
then Minister of Labor and Social Services, Salah Jama, played a pivotal role in moving this project forward.
Many federal officials helped the project come to fruition, including Minister of Education, Abdullahi Godah
Barre, and his predecessor, Abdirahman D. Osman; the Minister of Labor, Sadik Warfa; Vice Minister of
Health, Mohamed Said; Finance Minister, Dr. Abdirahman Beileh and his Vice Minister, Dr. Abdullahi
Sheikh Ali. Likewise, current and former leaders of the federal member states all supported the human
capital development assessments in their respective regions.
A core output of this undertaking is the national human capital development strategy as well as sector
specific interventions available at HIPS website or this dedicated website, www.humancapital.so. The
strategy identified key recommendations including the harmonization of the efforts of the human capital
development stakeholders, the establishment of a National Qualifications Framework (NQF) and the
adaptation of national values and mind-set conducive to Technical and Vocational Educational and Training
(TVET) and productive sector development.
This research exercise was not only immensely educational but also humbling. The baseline studies laid
bare the enormous developmental challenges Somalia faces. As part of the leadership of Somalia’s higher
education and research institution, we assumed we knew the depth and breadth of the country’s human
capital challenges. However, the findings convinced us that we had a great deal to learn. We are, therefore,
confident relevant stakeholders who read these baseline studies and this accompanying strategy will agree
that the implementation of the strategic interventions outlined in this document should become a national
priority.
Prof. Abdullahi Barise
President,
City University of Mogadishu
Over 1000
human capital
development
stakeholders from
both the public
and private sectors
contributed to
this pioneering
research work,
making it the
most authoritative
human capital
development
study and strategy
ever produced for
Somalia
Abdirashid Hashi
Executive Director
Heritage Institute for Policy Study (HIPS) 
6 Heritage Institute City University
Acknowledgements
We are profoundly grateful to the over 1000 Somali individuals we consulted in the production of the six
baseline studies that accompany this national human capital development strategy (HCDS), without whose
participation and support this research would not have been possible.  
This initiative benefited from the support, guidance and contributions of six key federal ministries and their
leaders: Minister of Planning, Investment and Economic Development, Ambassador Gamal Hassan, and
his team; the former Minister of Labor and Social Affairs Salah Jama (currently Constitution Minister) and
the former Labor and Social Affairs Minister, Sadik Warfa, and his team; the former Minister of Education
Abdirahman Dahir Osman and his team; the Minister of Health Dr. Fawziya Abikar and Vice Minister
Mohamed Said and their team. We are thankful to the ministry of Education leadership: Minister Abduallahi
Godah Barre, State Minister Abdirahman Mohamud Abdulle (Jabir), Vice Minister Faysal Omar Guled,
Director General Ahmed Yusuf, Director of Planning and Budget Khadija Abdullahi Jimale, Director of
TVET Abdiaziz Nor Mohamed and senior advisors Ibrahim Ahmed Mohamed and Dr. Abdullahi A. Omar.
Special thanks also goes to the Federal Vice Minister of Finance, Dr. Abdullahi Sheikh Ali "Qaloocow” for
his support of the consortium’s work as well as his participation in the Human Capital Development Multistakeholder Forum held in Mogadishu on 29 April 2019.
We also extend our appreciation to all former and current Federal Member State presidents who supported
and facilitated access for human capital development field research in their respective states. These include
the current Southeast State President Abdiaziz Hassan Mohamed Laftagren and the former President Sharif
Hassan Sheikh Adan; the President of Puntland Said Abdullahi Deni and the former President Dr. Abdweli
Ali Gaas; the President of Jubaland Ahmed Mohamed Islan; the President of Hirshabelle Mohamed Abdi
Waare and the Deputy President Ali Abdullahi Guudlaawe; and the former head of the Galmudug cabinet
Sheikh Shakir Ali Hassan. President Abdiweli Gaas of Puntland was gracious enough to invite consortium
researchers to address his cabinet on the importance of human capital development.
We are profoundly grateful to senior ministers who attended the HIPS Annual Forum for Ideas (AFI 2019)
held in Djibouti in December 2019 where human capital development was the main theme. The Minister
of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Ahmed Ise Awad, and the Minister of Finance, Abdirahman Duale Beileh,
served as keynote speakers. We are also thankful to the Ministers of Constitution and Education Salah Jama
and Abullahi Godah Barre for their endorsement of the human capital development initiative.
We are thankful to all the senior officials at the Planning, Investment and Economic Development ministry
led by Permanent Secretary Abdikadir Adan. We are also grateful to the planning ministers of the Federal
Member States, particularly former Jubaland Minister of Planning Adam Ibrahim Aw-Hirsi; the Southwest
Minister of Planning Ahmed Madoobe Nunow; the Puntland Minister of Planning Shire Haji Farah; the
Hirshabelle Deputy Minister of Planning Abdihamid Mohamed Ali; and the Galmudug Minister of Planning
Abdikafi Mohamud. 
7 Heritage Institute City University
Ministers from the regional education, labor, health and women’s affairs ministries helped with the research
and participated in the multi-stakeholder forum in Mogadishu. We are thankful to Jubaland Minister of
Health Mursal Mohamed Khalif; Galmudug Education Minister Ahmed Deeq Falko; Jubaland Education
Minister, the late Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamud; Southwest Education Minister Abdirahman Osman;
Hirshabelle Deputy Minister of Education Moumin Tourre Abdullahi; former Southwest Minister of
Education and current Minister of Interior Mohamed Abokar; and former Southwest Minister of Interior
Mohamednor Madowe Nunow.  
Special thanks go to Federal Member State ministers who participated in our inaugural multi-stakeholder
forum in Mogadishu: Jubaland Minister of Education (the late) Sheikh Mohamed Ibrahim; the Hirshabelle
Deputy Minister of Women and Human Rights, Halima Ali Said; the Southwest Minister of Labor Faisal
Abdullahi Ibrahim; the Hirshabelle State House Minister Abdullahi Mohamed Addow; the Hirshabelle
Deputy Labor Minister Abdikarim Mohamed Dirie; the Southwest Vice Minister of Women Shamso
Mohamed Yarow; and the Puntland Vice Minister of Health Abdinasir Haji Yusuf. We are also grateful to the
Jubaland Minister of Women Qamar Deeq Haji Khalif, whom we interviewed in Kismayo and the former
Puntland Vice Minister of Women’s Affairs Maryan Ahmed Ali.
Representatives of Somalia’s civil society, private sector and academia were instrumental to our data
collection. We are grateful to Hormud Group CEO Ahmed Mohamud Yusuf (Ahmed-Saudi) for an extended
discussion on job creation and challenges facing the private sector. Chambers of commerce at both the
national and regional levels were also supportive of our efforts and we express our appreciation to the Vice
President of the Somali Chamber of Commerce Abdirashid Ainanshe; Chairperson of the Puntland Chamber
of Commerce Mohamed Aided; Chairman of the Southwest Chamber of Commerce Haji Ahmed Isak;
Chairperson of the Hirshabelle Chamber of Commerce Xaliima Fiidow; and Deputy Chair of the Jubaland
Chamber of Commerce Mohamed Sharif.
We also are grateful for the support of our academic partners, particularly those from universities in
Mogadishu, Kismayo, Baidoa and Garowe. These included Abdulkadir Hikam, the former President of
Kismayo University; Mohamed Haji Hussein, the President of the University of Southern Somalia, Baidoa;
and our colleagues at Puntland State University (PSU), East Africa University,  Mogadishu University, City
University of Mogadishu and Banadir University. We would also like to thank the leaders of Mogadishu’s
education umbrella organizations particularly Professor Abdulkadir Hassan Ahmed (Kadle) for providing
invaluable inputs throughout workshop discussions, secondary data collection and validations.
Representatives and advocates for people with special needs also played an important role in this research
project. We are thankful to: Mohamed Harun Mohamoud, who was a consultant for the consortium and has
written extensively on disability issues; prominent disability issues activist Abdirahman Mohamed Farah
(Lunge); and Ahmed Mohamed, the Special Needs Director of the Galmudug Ministry of Education who
offered valuable insights and contributions to this study. 
8 Heritage Institute City University
The project was both conceived and funded by the Somalia Stability Fund (SSF) and would not have been
possible without the support and leadership of the entire SSF team, particularly investment managers
Ibrahim Abdi and Fatuma Abdullahi and SSF team leader Vishalini Lawrence. We are also thankful to SSF
consultant and human capital development expert Lee Sorensen who supported the consortium in every
stage of the development of the baseline study. Lee authored the rationale section of the HCD that focused on
global benchmarks and lessons learned from other contexts.
We are very thankful to our HIPS’ core funders SIDA (Sweden) and SDC (Switzerland) without whose
support the institute would not have been able to contribute to the transformation of the policy environment
in Somalia.
Special gratitude also goes to the government of Djibouti, especially H.E. President Ismail Omar Guelleh,
who sponsored the 2019 Annual Forum for Ideas where human capital development was the key theme and
preliminary results of the baseline studies were presented.
Last but not least, we extend our heartfelt gratitude to all the HIPS and City University of Mogadishu
researchers, academics and support staff whose dedication and service was instrumental to the completion of
this project. 
Professor Abdi Mohamed Kusow
lowa State University and Senior
HIPS Research Methodology Fellow
Abdulkareem H. Jama
Vice President and Provost
City University of Mogadishu
HCD Project Director
9 Heritage Institute City University
Executive Summary
This report is the result of a two-year collaborative project aimed at assessing the state
of human capital development in Somalia and creating an inclusive, indigenous and
sustainable national human capital development strategy. 
A consortium comprising the Heritage Institute for Policy Studies (HIPS) and City
University of Mogadishu (CU) produced five baseline studies (education, health,
labour, agriculture/livestock and fisheries) and developed strategies to improve the
state of human capital development in the country. Key ministries of the Federal
Government of Somalia (FGS) and the Federal Member States (FMS) assisted us by
granting our researchers unfettered access to their data, particularly the ministries
of planning, labor, education and health. Other national and regional government
entities, education sector stakeholders, major employers and chambers of commerce
at the FGS and FMS level also supported the research by providing data and
participating in interviews and focus group discussions. 
Research objectives
The research sought to accomplish the following four key objectives:
(a) Conduct comprehensive baseline studies on education, labor, health, and
productive sectors (agriculture, fisheries and livestock) 
(b) Develop a Somali-led national human capital development strategy 
(c) Propose ways to synchronize the efforts of human capital stakeholders to ensure
the success of the human capital development strategy
(d) Secure endorsement and support from key stakeholders for the development of a
human capital strategy, its inclusion in the National Development Plan (NDP-9),
and the adoption of human capital development as a national priority.
A consortium
comprising the
Heritage Institute
for Policy Studies
(HIPS) and
City University
of Mogadishu
(CU) produced five
baseline studies
and developed
strategies to
improve the state
of human capital
development in the
country
10 Heritage Institute City University
Guiding Principles of the Research
The last 20 years have been characterized by slow but steady recovery and a modest
reconstitution of state institutions, including the adoption of a contested and unsettled
federal governance structure. There is much to be optimistic about Somalia’s recovery
despite the protracted instability. This human capital development strategy is anchored
on Somalia’s fragile realities and its success hinges upon the ushering in of a conducive
enabling environment. The human capital development strategy aims to provide a
framework to transform the knowledge and skills of the Somali workforce and help to
develop an empowered and healthy Somali population with the necessary skills and
attitudes for productive sector driven and sustainable economic development.
Human Capital Development Core Values
Inclusive and Equitable Human Capital: The human capital development strategy
aspires towards ensuring equity in education and employment opportunities for
all Somalis regardless of their geographical location (urban or rural), gender or
socioeconomic status.
Quality and Excellence: The strategy aims to provide quality education and training
in all fields with results that can be measured through national qualifications standards
to ensure quality and competitiveness.
Relevance: The HCD strategy urges relevant stakeholders to prioritize education and
training programs that are responsive to labor market needs, productive --sector
growth, and the overall economic development of the country.  
"Somalinimo”: The HCD strategy should be anchored on a shared and inclusive
national identity, strong moral values, equity and civic pride in pursuing the nation’s
development goals. 
The HCD strategy
urges relevant
stakeholders to
prioritize education
and training
programs that
are responsive to
labor market
needs, productive
sector growth,
and the overall
economic
development of the
country. 
11 Heritage Institute City University
Research Design
The data collection phase included quantitative surveys and qualitative data collection
including key informant interviews, focus group discussions, expert forums and direct
observation. The research process was divided into three phases: 1) secondary data
collection, 2) primary data collection and 3)  multi-stakeholder workshops. 
In the secondary data collection phase, a team of researchers systematically reviewed
policy documents, reports and data on issues pertaining to educational enrolment,
labor dynamics, health indicators, agriculture, livestock, fisheries, infrastructure and
skills training gaps. The primary data collection and multi-stakeholder workshops
- held across the country between July 2018 and November 2019 - included 190 key
informant interviews, 80 focus group discussions and six expert workshops, totaling
1,000 participants. 
Definition of Human Capital
Human capital is a broad concept that includes not only education and training but
also many other aspects of human development such as the health of the population
and their talents, habits and attitudes towards work.  According to the World
Economic Forum’ 2016 Human Capital Report, ‘A nation’s human capital endowment
- the knowledge and skills embodied in individuals that enable them to create
economic value - can be a more important determinant of its long-term success than
virtually any other resource.’
Human capital is
a broad concept
that includes not
only education
and training but
also many other
aspects of human
development such
as the health of
the population and
their talents, habits
and attitudes
towards work
12 Heritage Institute City University
Human capital is one of the five core capitals described in the UK Department for
International Development (DFID) Sustainable Livelihoods Framework:
1. Human capital- the amount and quality of knowledge and labor available in a
household
2. Natural capital- the quality and quantity of natural resources, ranging from fisheries
to air quality
3. Financial capital- savings and regular inflows of money
4. Physical capital- the infrastructure, tools and equipment used to increase
productivity
5. Social capital- social resources including networks for cooperation, mutual trust
and support 
13 Heritage Institute City University
Key Baseline Findings
Education
Education is one of the most important determinants of an individual’s productivity
and future success, and is also a key driver of economic development. High
illiteracy, low school enrolment and a low quality education systems all have serious
implications for the development of the education sector.
The study findings include: 
• National education data indicates that nearly half of the Somali population
cannot read or write, which makes Somalia one of the world’s least literate
countries. Literacy is essential for social and economic development and is the
gateway to human capital development. 
• In 2019, the gross enrolment rate in primary education was approximately 32.7%,
meaning that roughly 67% of the country’s school-age population were out of
school. The gross enrolment rate in secondary education was even lower at 18.4%.
A relatively small number of students (13,071) are currently enrolled in TVET
programs. 
• Overall, the country’s education system continues to be of poor quality, hampered
by lack of qualified teachers, resources and the absence of demand-driven
curricula and substandard infrastructure. 
Health
Somalia has some of the lowest health and well-being indicators in the world, with
women and children most affected. The findings of this study show that healthcare
services in Somalia are appalling, and the healthcare workforce lacks the skills,
knowledge, medical equipments and instruments and the necessary resources to do
their jobs. 



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